Nutrition Basics for Chronic and Acute Pancreatitis
If the doctor has diagnosed “chronic pancreatitis”, then do not immediately lose heart. The pathology is unpleasant, and sometimes very painful (in the phase of exacerbation), but with the right treatment, you can live quite comfortably with it. The main role in the fight against the disease is diet. Therefore, all patients with chronic pancreatitis are given special nutrition.
Why do I need a diet?
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process involving the pancreas. It leads to the gradual destruction of organ cells. Dead tissue is replaced by connective tissue. The latter is not able to produce digestive enzymes and important hormones.
The food that enters the body, with a lack of enzymes, cannot completely break down. It is excreted almost undigested. The body does not receive the necessary nutrients. Deficiency of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas) is accompanied by an increase in blood glucose. This can lead to diabetes.
To protect the inflamed organ from further destruction, doctors prescribe a diet. The main goals of clinical nutrition:
decrease in the load on the pancreas;
reduction of the inflammatory and degenerative process;
restoration of the proper functioning of the body;
protection against fatty infiltration;
digestive tract sparing and prevention of the development of gastrointestinal diseases.
Diet helps to reduce the load on the pancreas
With pancreatitis, the patient is assigned a dietary table No. 5. The subspecies of the diet depends on the form of the disease.
During an exacerbation of pancreatitis, the patient is recommended a 5p-1 diet. In the stage of remission, the patient is transferred to a high-protein diet and a 5p-2 table is prescribed.
5 diet rules
In pancreatitis therapy, the diet is the cornerstone, so patients must adhere to therapeutic nutrition. The diet is based on the following rules:
Frequent meals. The patient eats often and little by little. Recommended 5-6 times the diet. Eat every 2.5-3 hours. And the portion size is on average 200-250 g.
The consistency of the food. To reduce the load on the pancreas, all products are subjected to thorough heat treatment. Boiled dishes are carefully chopped. Such nutrition is practiced during exacerbation of pancreatitis. When the pathology goes into remission, doctors are allowed to switch to more solid foods.
Heat treatment. With pancreatitis, preference is given to steamed dishes. Boiled, baked, stewed foods are useful. And it is strictly forbidden to eat fried foods.
Redistribution of nutrients. With pancreatitis (in remission), it is recommended to consume more protein foods (fish, dairy products, meat). Only low-fat foods are selected. The daily amount of protein is 110-120 g. Fats and carbohydrates that load the pancreas are reduced to a minimum. So, the daily amount of protein is 75-80 g, and carbohydrates – 300-350 g. The energy value of the menu is 2270-2560 kcal.
Temperature condition. With pathologies of the pancreas, they do not eat hot and cold food. The temperature of dishes should vary between + 15 ° С … + 62 ° С. Therefore, it is better to forget about ice cream and tea burning your throat.
With pancreatitis, the patient must completely abandon the use of alcohol and smoking.
Nutrition for acute pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis occurs in waves. The stage of remission is replaced by a period of exacerbation. To stop the attack, doctors recommend being treated with “cold, hunger and rest.” With an exacerbation of pancreatitis, you should definitely consult a doctor. In some cases, the patient can be saved only with the help of urgent surgical intervention.
In acute pancreatitis, there should be hunger.
The patient in the exacerbation phase (if surgery is not needed) is prescribed the following treatment:
Cold and peace. To reduce discomfort and reduce severe pain, an ice warmer is placed on the hypochondrium.
Hunger. Within 2-3 days, the patient needs to completely refuse food. At this time, the patient drinks only drinks. With an exacerbation of pancreatitis, the following are useful: Borjomi (without gas), weak tea, broth of wild rose. During the day, you can drink no more than 6 glasses of liquid (200 ml each).
Entering the first food. When the peak of exacerbation begins to decline, the doctor will allow you to enter the first meal in the menu. Food should be as sparing as possible. The patient is allowed mucous soups (cereals or vegetables) prepared on water, mashed potatoes, mashed cereals, steam cutlets from low-fat fish or meat, soufflé, baked apples.
Expansion of the diet. After 5-7 days, the patient is transferred to a high-protein diet. Such a diet is observed by all patients with chronic pancreatitis without exacerbation.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
Food in remission is always less rigid than with exacerbation of pancreatitis. It still remains gentle, but it includes significantly more products. This allows the patient to form a complete diet.